Anorectal Cancer

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Anorectal Cancer

 

Anorectal cancer is cancer of the skin cells surrounding the anus, or along the lining of the passage connecting the anus and the rectum (the anal canal).

 

Causes

Although the exact cause of anorectal cancer is unknown, a number of risk factors have been identified, and include:

·         Smoking;

·         Certain sexually-transmitted disease, primarily the human papillomavirus (HPV);

·         Engaging in anal intercourse; and

·         Having multiple sexual partners.

 

Symptoms and diagnosis

In approximately 25 per cent of cases, people with anorectal cancer will have no symptoms.

Others, however, may experience:

·         Bloating;

·         Pain and bleeding with bowel movements;

·         Itching around the anus; and

·         Lower back pain.

To detect anorectal cancer, a doctor will inspect and physically probe the skin surrounding the anus and the anal canal. If there is any part of the lining that appears to differ from its surrounds, the doctor then takes a sample of the tissue and examines it for cancer under a microscope.

 

Treatment

A combination of radiation, chemotherapy and surgery is often sufficient to treat anorectal cancer, with 70 per cent of patients surviving upward of five years.

Continued monitoring and further treatment may be required if the cancer is recurrent.

 

 

Efficacy of Alternative and Other Treatments According to GRADE* Ranking:

Venus Flytrap Extract (Carnivora, Dionaea Muscipula) [2, 10, 11]:

Please note, this management does NOT treat the condition itself. It is proposed only as a weak supportive symptomatic support, and even then, has insufficient evidence to back up this claim at present.

Recommendation: Weakly in favor (Early laboratory studies show that Venus Flytrap Extract may have some effect against anorectal cancer in animals. However more research is needed in humans.)

Grade of Evidence: Low quality of evidence

Turmeric [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]:

Please note, this management does NOT treat the condition itself. It is proposed only as a weak supportive symptomatic support, and even then, has insufficient evidence to back up this claim at present.

Recommendation: Weakly in favor (Early laboratory studies show that turmeric may be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. However, clinical trials on humans are needed)

Grade of Evidence: Low quality of evidence

Vitamin C [1, 9, 13]:

Please note, this management does NOT treat the condition itself. It is proposed only as a weak supportive symptomatic support, and even then, has insufficient evidence to back up this claim at present. 

Recommendation: No recommendation (There is insufficient evidence to support claims that vitamin C may be able to help treat anorectal cancer. More studies are needed)

Grade of Evidence: Very low quality of evidence

* www.gradeworkinggroup.org

 


Summary References

Treatments:

1. http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/patient/vitamin-c-pdq

2. Ades T, Alteri R, Gansler T, Yeargin P, "Complete Guide to Complimentary & Alternative Cancer Therapies", American Cancer Society, Atlanta USA, 2009

3. http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/TreatmentsandSideEffects/ComplementaryandAlternativeMedicine/HerbsVitaminsandMinerals/turmeric

4. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-turmeric.html

5. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/turmeric/index.htm

6. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/1668932.stm

7. http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2009/10/28/curry-kills-cancer-cells-and-other-health-benefits-of-the-nations-favourite-dish-115875-21779950/

8. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=turmeric

9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11205484

10. Parimala, R. & P. Sachdanandam 1993. Effect of plumbagin on some glucose metabolizing enzymes studied in rats in experimental hepatoma. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 12(1): 59–63.

11. http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/318/2/484

13. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/10/1/17.full


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